Climate change report urges immediate action

A chart that's part of a new report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change shows a range of global warming pos

In reality, it seems far more likely that the world will "overshoot" the 1.5 degree mark, causing irreversible harm.

"We've told you the scientific facts, the evidence, the costs; it is up to the governments now to decide what to do with it", says Jim Ski, a co-chair of this panel, who calls on the globe's governments to come together to fight climate change.

World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Secretary-General Petteri Taalas attends a news conference after the release of the report of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) at the United Nations in Geneva, Switzerland, October 8, 2018.

And we're running out of time to thwart it.

The Scottish government published its draft Climate Change Bill earlier this year, which upped a 2050 target for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from 80% to 90% against 1990 levels.

If that happens, India may face serious consequences, including severe heat-stress in big cities and high air pollution levels, saltwater intrusion in coastal areas triggered by rise in sea levels and increased vulnerability to disasters in high mountain ecosystems, according to experts.

"The good news is that some of the kinds of actions that would be needed to limit global warming to 1.5 °C are already underway around the world, but they would need to accelerate", said Valerie Masson-Delmotte, Co-Chair of Working Group I.

Emissions cuts in transport, buildings, industry, power generation and dietary habits such as eating meat will need to take place in a bid to speed up temperature limits. By 2050, emissions will need to be reduced by 100 percent. "Only with a radical transformation of our energy, food and economic systems, embracing environmental, social, gender and economic justice, can we prevent climate catastrophe and temperature rises exceeding 1.5°C". At 2 degrees, that will be more like once per decade. But that number is an average of temperatures all over the globe, so some places will become significantly hotter.

And she said: "The UK has already shown carbon abatement and prosperity can go hand in hand, and we lead the world in clean growth - slashing emissions by more than 40pc since 1990 while growing our economy ahead of the G7". These factors could trigger huge migrations of people and mass extinctions of animals. Yesterday's report made it very clear that actually, global warming of 2°C would be really unsafe.

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However, it was important that we didn't lose. "If somebody had told me after eight fixtures, 20 points, I would say "yes". Heading into the worldwide break, City, Liverpool and Chelsea are all on 20 points, with Arsenal and Tottenham two adrift.

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The report was prepared at the request of governments when the global pact to tackle climate change was agreed in Paris almost three years ago. In 2017, the Donald Trump administration said it will withdraw from the Paris agreement but it can not do that before 2020 according to the terms of the agreement.

Compared to the already tall task of meeting the 2.0°C goal, this effort would require even more efficiency gains to bring down total energy demand. Sea levels would be at least 10 centimeters higher by the end of the century at 2 degrees than they would be with 1.5 degrees. Coral reefs have a particularly dire outlook. The Arctic, which would be ice-free about once per century at 1.5 degrees of temperature rise, would be ice-free once per decade at 2 degrees.

These effects will make certain parts of the world less habitable for humans.

Small islands and coastal cities such as NY and Mumbai risk going underwater without the installation of sea barriers.

Sea levels, for example, would be 10cm lower in a 1.5 degree scenario than a 2 degree scenario, and there would be substantially fewer heatwaves and droughts.

There are financial estimates of the damage, too.

Limiting warming to a half degree Celsius from now means the world can keep "a semblance" of the ecosystems we have. But right now, they aren't cost-effective or efficient enough.

"International cooperation is absolutely imperative to limit emissions and therefore global warming and its impacts, as well as coordinating effective and widespread adaptation and mitigation", said Sarah Perkins-Kirkpatrick, a fellow at the Climate Change Research Center at the University of New South Wales. It would also require developed countries to contribute more to global finance flows and technology sharing for poor countries to achieve these enhanced targets.

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